China has pledged to strike back at 650 different USA exports including hybrid electric and off road vehicles, dump trucks, asphalt, MRI machines and motorcycles, among other items on Thursday.
Beijing has denied USA allegations that it systematically forces the unfair transfer of US technology and has said that it adheres to WTO rules.
The US imposed 25 per cent tariffs on another $16 billion of Chinese goods just after midnight.
Mr Trump, who has threatened to target all $500bn in goods the USA imports from China, has made that same point, noting that Beijing can not continue to retaliate in kind since it imports less than $200bn a year in United States goods.
Washington is holding hearings this week on a proposed list of an additional $200 billion worth of Chinese imports to face duties.
Trump also has accused China of manipulating its currency to combat U.S. tariffs.
Trump has been unapologetic, insisting that his tough tactics will work, even as American businesses and the Federal Reserve warn of the harm already felt in the economy. Eventually, the combination of higher prices for consumer goods, mounting job losses in tariff-affected industries, and slower economic growth should create political push-back against the Trump administration's trade war. U.S. has imposed a steep import tariffs starting today on United States dollars 16 billion of Chinese goods over what Washington has called rampant theft of American technology.
China's commerce ministry said the U.S. tariffs were "clearly suspected of violating WTO rules" and noted it would file a lawsuit against them under the WTO's dispute resolution mechanism.More news: Halep, del Potro advance at rain-hit Cincinnati
The 25 percent increases took effect as envoys from both sides held their first high-level talks in two months in Washington.
That would more than exceed the size of China's imports from the U.S., raising concerns that Beijing could consider other types of retaliation, such as making life more hard for American firms in China or letting its yuan currency weaken further to keep its exports competitive.
Some commentators also struck a note of caution for China in taking tit-for-tat approach.
USA commerce secretary Wilbur Ross said China would not be able to continue to retaliate at the same pace as the United States, since "we have many more bullets than they do". This is the second round of tariffs, to be followed, according to the White House, by tariffs on US$200 billion worth of Chinese goods. In response, the Chinese delegation could this week offer a private pledge not to let the currency weaken further as long as negotiations continue, said Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington.
This week's talks are also taking place as hundreds of executives and officials from USA companies, trade groups and other entities have descended on Washington to weigh in on the administration's planned tariffs on the additional US$200 billion in Chinese imports.
Trump's administration has also been cracking down on all Chinese involvement in the American tech sphere, including with draft legislation barring the sale of national security-sensitive technology to China and blocking government or contractors from buying telecommunications equipment and services from Chinese heavyweights Huawei and ZTE.
China's list of 333 United States product categories hit with duties includes coal, copper scrap, fuel, steel products, buses and medical equipment.