Al Jubeir said Khashoggi was approached by a "Saudi security team" when he entered the consulate and their account of what happened after that differed from that of Turkish officials, which prompted the Saudis to investigate. "All of this needs to be explained in all its details", President Erdogan said on Sunday.
The latest account, provided by a Saudi official who requested anonymity, includes details on how the team of 15 Saudi nationals sent to confront Mr Khashoggi on Oct 2 had threatened him with being drugged and kidnapped, then killed him in a chokehold when he resisted.
Al-Jubeir is on a two-day visit to Indonesia and has a separate meeting with Retno on Tuesday. Saudi Arabia has threatened to retaliate against any punitive action, but analysts say that wielding its main weapon - oil production - could backfire, putting the prince's economic goals even further out of reach.
The officials say Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Donald Trump agreed during their call late on Sunday that the journalist's case "should be brought to light in all aspects".
Videos have emerged of a Saudi suspected of being behind Jamal Khashoggi's murder walking around Istanbul in the journalist's clothes shortly after he was last seen.
Pro-government media in Turkey have reported a different narrative, saying a Saudi hit squad of 15 people traveled to Turkey to kill the columnist for the Washington Post before leaving the country hours later in private jets.
Yeni Safak cited no source for the information.More news: Sadio Mane injury update
"After Turkish authorities and the media were allowed to inspect the consulate building in its entirety, the accusations changed to the outrageous claim that he was murdered, in the consulate, during business hours, and with dozens of staff and visitors in the building", Saudi Ambassador to the U.S. Prince Khalid bin Salman, a brother of the crown prince, wrote on October 8. But critics believe the complex scheme that led to Khashoggi's death could not have occurred without the knowledge of Mohammed bin Salman, the country's powerful 33-year-old crown prince.
He reiterated Chancellor Angela Merkel's statement from Sunday, saying Berlin "at this stage will not approve further arms exports because we want to know what happened", adding that "all explanations so far have been unsatisfactory".
"Only when all European nations are in agreement will this make an impression on Riyadh", he said, speaking on public television.
"First, we condemn this act in the strongest terms", the German leader said.
Saudi Arabia on Monday said King Salman and his son Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had called the son of slain Saudi writer Jamal Khashoggi, to express condolences for his death at the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul by officials that allegedly included a member of the royal's entourage. All of them shield King Salman and his son and from any involvement. The Saudi statements did not acknowledge the ban.
The kingdom's announcement comes two days after acknowledging that the Washington Post writer was killed October 2 at the consulate under disputed circumstances.
The journalist's fiancee Hatice Cengiz, who was waiting outside the consulate's front entrance and raised the alarm when he didn't return, was told by a consulate guard that he may have exited the building through the back door, Khashoggi's friend Turan Kislakci told CNN. The kingdom finally acknowledged his death early Saturday in what it described as a "fistfight". "This was a premeditated murder and the body was moved out of the consulate", a Turkish official told CNN.