The Chang'e-4 probe, which landed on the "dark" or far side of the Moon on January 3, is housing an airtight container designed for growing plants and crops in shocking conditions.
In an attempt to better understand how plants and animals could grow and live on the lunar surface, Chongqing University equipped the Chang'e 4 lander with a "mini-biosphere" experiment, which is created to be a self-sustaining ecosystem, according to Chinese state-run news agency Xinhua.
"In the past, we were always rushing to catch up to the advanced global standards" in space, said Wu Weiren, the chief designer of China's lunar exploration project.
Officials at the Chinese space agency say they now plan to send a probe to Mars in 2020 and aim to follow that up with manned missions to the planet.
The Chang'e-4 mission has also brought along fruit flies to form a "lunar mini biosphere", helping scientists understand how animals and crops interact in different environments.More news: Top North Korean official arrives in Washington for talks
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations shared its glee on Twitter, saying, "China's moon mission success means that astronauts could potentially harvest their own food in space!" Chang'e 4 is located in the Von Karman crater in the moon's southern hemisphere.
The Chang'e 4 lander and Yutu 2 rover have now entered lunar night, and have gone into a sort of sleep mode as a result.
Despite some climate challenges, such as the Moon's changing temperatures, Chinese state media posted a picture of the cotton seeds on Tuesday, and said the seeds were sprouting. Reports from China indicate that the cotton seeds have germinated while the lander is parked on the far side of the moon.
The ability to grow plants on the Moon will be integral for long-term space missions, like a trip to Mars which would take about two-and-a-half years.
The country has also said that it will welcome scientists and astronauts from around the world to make use of its space station, which is slated for completion by 2022.
Video taken from the Chang'e-4 probe shows its view as it hovered over Earth's rocky neighbor before quickly dropping toward its surface. Aside from Russian Federation and the United States, it is the only other country to reach the moon.